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All acids and also bases execute not ionize or dissociate to the very same extent. This leader to the statement that acids and bases space not all of equal stamin in producing H+ and OH- ions in solution. The terms "strong" and "weak" provide an clues of the toughness of an acid or base. The terms solid and weak describe the capacity of acid and base services to command electricity. If the mountain or base conducts power strongly, the is a solid acid or base. If the acid or basic conducts power weakly, it is a weak mountain or base.

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## Demonstration that Acid and Base Conductivity

The instructor will test the conductivity of assorted solutions with a light pear apparatus. The light bulb circuit is incomplete. If the circuit is completed by a systems containing a large number of ions, the irradiate bulb will glow brightly describe a solid ability come conduct power as shown for HCl. If the circuit is completed by a systems containing large numbers the molecules and also either no ions or couple of ions, the systems does not conduct or conducts really weakly as displayed for acetic acid.

Ka = /

where HA is the concentration that the acid at equilibrium, and also A- is the concentration that its conjugate basic at equilibrium and for bases the expression will be

ceB>

where B is the concentration of the base at equilibrium and HB+ is the concentration that its conjugate acid at equilibrium

The more powerful an mountain is, the reduced the pH the will produce in solution. PH is calculate by acquisition the negative logarithm the the concentration that hydronium ions. For strong acids, you can calculate the pH by simply taking the an adverse logarithm of its molarity together it completely dissociates into its conjugate base and hydronium. The same goes for strong bases, other than the an adverse logarithm offers you the pOH as opposed come the pH. Because that weak acids and bases, the higher the Ka or Kb, the much more acidic or an easy the solution. To find the pH for a weak mountain or base, you need to use the K equation and a RICE table to recognize the pH.

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All acids have a conjugate base that develops when lock react v water, and also similarly, every bases have a conjugate mountain that reacts as soon as they form with water.1 You can judge the loved one strength that a conjugate through the (K_a) or (K_b) value of the substance since (K_a imesK_b) is same to the ionization constant of water, Kw i beg your pardon is equal to (1 imes 10^-14) in ~ room temperature. The greater the Ka, the more powerful the acid is, and also the weaker that is conjugate base is. Similarly, the greater the Kb, the more powerful the problem is together a base, and the more weakly acidic that is conjugate mountain is.1

### Calculation that Ka

For an mountain that reacts with water in the reaction

>

where each bracketed term to represent the concentration of that substance in solution.

Relation that Kw, Kb, Ka

Partial perform of strong Acids: Hydrochlroic acid (HCl), Nitric acid (HNO3), Perchloric acid (HClO4), Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

Partial perform of solid Bases: sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Barium Hydroxide (Ba(OH)2), Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) (Hydroxides of team I and II aspects are generally solid bases)

Partial perform of Weak Acids: Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Carbonic acid (H2CO3), Phosphoric mountain (H3PO4)

Partial list of Weak Bases: Ammonia (NH3), Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), salt Acetate (NaCH3COO)