Maltose<1>
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Chemical name4-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-glucose
Other namesMaltoseMalt sugarMaltobiose
Chemical formulaC12H22O11
Molecular mass342.1162 g/mol
CAS number<69-79-4>
Density1.54 g/cm3 <2>
Solubility1.080 g/ml (20 °C) in water<2>
Melting point102-103 °C (monohydrate)
Boiling pointN/A
SMILESOCH>1O
Disclaimer and also references

Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide created from 2 units of glucose joined v an α(1→4) linkage. Maltose is not common in food, but can be formed from the cradle of starch, and is heavy in the street in malt, the juice that barley and also other grains. Maltose is a member of crucial biochemical series of glucose chains. The disaccharides maltose, sucrose, and lactose have the very same chemical formula, C12H22O11, however, they different in structure (see framework below).

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Maltose can be developed from strength by hydrolysis in the existence of the enzyme diastase. It deserve to be broken down right into two glucose molecule by hydrolysis. In life organisms, the enzyme maltase can accomplish this very rapidly. In the laboratory, heating with a solid acid for numerous minutes will develop the same result.

There is another disaccharide that can be made from two glucoses, cellobiose, which differs just in the form of affiliation used in the bond. While the difference in between these 2 structures, maltose and cellobiose, is subtle, cellobiose has very different properties and cannot it is in hydrolized come glucose in the human being body. The specific pathways offered for these two molecules (some organisms can digest cellobiose) shows the complex coordination in nature.


Maltose is necessary in the fermentation the alcohol, together starch is converted to carbohydrates and also is readily damaged down into glucose molecules v the maltase enzyme existing in yeast. As soon as cereals such together barley is malted, it is brought into a condition in which the concentration the maltose has been maximized. Management of maltose by yeast during fermentation then leads come the production of ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Structure

Maltose is a carbohydrate (sugar). Carbohydrates room a class of organic molecules that contain mostly carbon (C) atom flanked by hydrogen (H) atoms and also hydroxyl (OH) groups (H-C-OH). Castle are called according to the number of carbon atom they contain, with many sugars having in between three and seven carbon atoms termed triose (three carbons), tetrose (four carbons), pentose (five carbons), hexose (six carbons), or heptose (seven carbons).

The single most common monosaccharide is the hexose D-glucose, represented by the formula C6H12O6. In addition to occurring as a cost-free monosaccharide, glucose likewise occurs in disaccharides, i beg your pardon consist of 2 monosaccharide units connected covalently. Every disaccharide is formed by a condensation reaction in which over there is a ns of hydrogen (H) native one molecule and also a hydroxyl group (OH) from the other. The result glycosidic bond—those that join a carbohydrate molecule come an alcohol, which might be an additional carbohydrate—is the properties linkage between sugars, whether in between two glucose molecules, or in between glucose and also fructose, and also so forth. Once two glucose molecules are connected together, such as in maltose, glycosidic bonds kind between carbon 1 the the very first glucose molecule and also carbon 4 that the second glucose molecule. (The carbons the glucose room numbered start with the much more oxidized end of the molecule, the carbonyl group.)


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Maltose, pictured here, has actually an α-linkage, the OH group of carbon 1 top top the an initial glucose points downwards. Cellobiose has actually a β-linkage, the OH team of carbon 1 on the an initial glucose clues upwards.

Three usual disaccharides space maltose, sucrose, and also lactose. Castle share the very same chemical formula, C12H22O11, yet involve various structures. Vice versa, maltose links two glucose devices by one α(1→4) glycosidic linkage, lactose (milk sugar) requires glucose and galactose bonded v a β1-4 glycosidic linkage, and sucrose (common table sugar) is composed of a glucose and a furustos joined by a glycosidic bond in between carbon atom 1 the the glucose unit and carbon atom 2 the the furustos unit.

Although the disaccharide maltose consists of two glucose molecules, it is no the just disaccharide that can be made from two glucoses. When glucose molecules kind a glycosidic bond, the linkage will be among two types, α or β, depending upon whether the molecule the bonds the carbon 1 is an α-glucose or β-glucose. An α-linkage with carbon 4 of a 2nd glucose molecule outcomes in maltose, vice versa, a β-linkage outcomes in cellobiose. As disaccharides, maltose and also cellobiose additionally share the same formula C12H22O11, however they are different compounds with different properties. For example, maltose can be hydrolyzed to its monosaccharides in the person body wherein as cellobiose cannot. Part organisms have actually the volume to malfunction cellobiose.

The addition of one more glucose unit yields maltotriose. Further enhancements will produce dextrins, also called maltodextrins, and eventually starch.

Function

Maltose is vital intermediate in the digestion of starch. Strength is supplied by plants together a method to save glucose. After cellulose, starch is the many abundant polysaccharide in tree cells. Pets (and plants) digest starch, convert it come glucose to serve as a resource of energy. Maltose can form from this starch as soon as it is damaged down, and also it in turn can be readily digested into the glucose molecules, the major totally free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals, and the desired fuel the the brain and concerned system. Lu and Sharkey (2006) report the maltose is the predominant form of carbon exported from tree chloroplasts at night, native the failure of starch.

Maltose is an exciting compound due to the fact that of its use in alcohol production. With a procedure called fermentation, glucose, maltose, and other sugars are converted come ethanol by yeast cells in the lack of oxygen. Through an analogous process, muscle cells convert glucose into lactic acid to obtain energy if the body operates under anaerobic conditions. Return maltose is unusual in nature, it can be developed through the failure of starch by the enzyme of the mouth.

Maltose, i m sorry is one-third together sweet as sucrose, was offered to sweeten foodstuffs at least as far back as the seventh century by the Chinese (Bender and also Bender 2005).

See also

Notes


References

Lu, Y. And T. D. Sharkey. 2006. The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and also Environment, 29:353-366.

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