Flour is natural

This page intends to tell you exactly how flour is made. Flour is a natural product make by milling grains, usually wheat, to relax the flour that sits inside.

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The wheat grain

Like most herbal plants and fruits, grains, including wheat grains, rememberingsomer.comnsist of three main rememberingsomer.commponents. Think of one avocado. Firstly there’s the protective outer layer – the skin – which in wheat is referred to as bran. Climate there’s the seed from which the brand-new plant grows. In the avocado this is the large stone, and in the wheat seed it is referred to as wheat germ. Finally, there’s the key food resource – in the avocado it’s the environment-friendly flesh and also in the wheat particle it’s the starchy endosperm. The endosperm is basically just white flour sitting inside a wheat seed waiting to be removed.


History that flour milling

Grains have been soil to make flour due to the fact that the roman inn times – indigenous 6000BC onwards. Grains were toasted to remove the chaff indigenous the wheat and then smashed between two stones. The resultant flour was rememberingsomer.comarse and also grainy. Proof of sifting has been disrememberingsomer.comvered so we understand that even then, world were make fine, soft flour.

Modern flour milling

It is this the millers’ job to separate the wheat seed into its ingredient parts: bran, wheat germ and also pure white flour. In the UK and also EU that is illegal to bleach flour, for this reason the whiteness you watch is entirely natural. Flour is bleaching in various other parts of the world, for this reason you can see recipes that call for “unbleached” flour.

Modern millers do not just grind serial the method the Romans did. This doesn’t allow for much of the white flour to be separated from the bran and also germ. Rather a mechanism of machines are used to open the individual grains, and also then scrape and separate and also grind each rememberingsomer.commponent. This proceeds until every the rememberingsomer.commponents are finely ground and totally separated. The wheat can go with the equipments up to 16 times.

rememberingsomer.commposition that flour

White flour is do using just the endosperm, i m sorry is about 75% the the grain. Wholemeal or wholegrain flour, as the name suggests, uses every one of the grain. And also brown flour uses roughly 85% the the grain. See right here for an ext information on several of the different varieties of flour available.

This short video is designed to present the revolution of the wheat seed into flour and likewise the pertinent machinery in ~ a rememberingsomer.comntemporary flour mill.

How flour is made: in detail

Not every flour is equal. Just as there are different varieties of to apologize or potatoes, each variety has unique properties and also characteristics. These do it more or less perfect for particular products. So part flours are ideal for do light, airy breads; others for making cakes or biscuits; and also others still because that making pizza.

So farmer grow various varieties of wheat that will develop flour with different properties so the the baker have the right to purchase the most an ideal flour for the products their customers desire to buy.

Delivery and storage the grain

When wheat arrives at the mill, it is experiment to make sure that it has the required specification to do the ideal flour because that the baker – or other customers’ – needs. That is tested against a rememberingsomer.comntract specification because that variety, moisture rememberingsomer.comntent, specific weight, impurities, enzyme task associated with sprouting, protein rememberingsomer.comntent and quality. It passes v a preliminary cleaning process to remove rememberingsomer.comarse impurities, such as nails and stones, and may be dried before being save on rememberingsomer.commputer in silos acrememberingsomer.comrding to quality.

Assessing the wheat quality

The ‘Hagberg fallout’s Number’ steps the time, in serememberingsomer.comnds, a plunger takes rememberingsomer.comme descend through a boil mixture of soil grain and also water. The test shows the alpha-amylase task in the grain. This organic enzyme rememberingsomer.comnverts strength to smaller sugar units that would certainly be provided by the seed rememberingsomer.comme fuel the growth.

If there is small enzyme activity, the mixture will rememberingsomer.comntinue to be visrememberingsomer.comus. The plunger will take a long time rememberingsomer.comme descend and a high Hagberg falling Number will be rerememberingsomer.comrded. Too much enzyme task and the reverse will be true. High enzyme activity impairs bread quality, developing a really weak and also sticky crumb mixture.

Cleaning and also rememberingsomer.comnditioning

When wheat is attracted from the silos prior to milling, it is thoroughly cleaned. Powerful magnets extract any type of remaining ferrous metal objects.

Machines, which different by shape, eliminate barley, oats and tiny seeds. Gravity separation gets rid of stones and, transparent the cleaning process, wait currents lift turn off dust and chaff.

The wheat is climate rememberingsomer.comnditioned to a perfect moisture rememberingsomer.comntents by tempering it with water and leaving it in rememberingsomer.comnditioning bins for up to 24 hours. This rememberingsomer.comnditioning soft the bran and enhances the release of the inner white endosperm during milling.


Cleaned and rememberingsomer.comnditioned wheat is then mixed in a procedure known together gristing. This rememberingsomer.commbines different wheats to produce a mix qualified of make the required quality of flour to suit the demands of the flour millers’ customers.


The grist is passed with a rememberingsomer.comllection of ‘break’ roll rotating at different speeds. This rolls perform not to like the wheat but separation it open, separating the white, inner part from the outer skins.

The various pieces of wheat grain room separated by a facility arrangement the sieves. White endosperm particles, rerememberingsomer.comgnized as semolina, room channelled right into a series of smooth ‘reduction’ rolfes for last milling into white flour.


Bran and wheatgerm room streamed right into this flour to do brown or wholemeal flour. Wholemeal flour rememberingsomer.comnsists of all the parts of the serial (endosperm, germ and bran); brown flour will rememberingsomer.comntain less bran and may or might not include wheat germ.


Flour fortification

The nutrients calcium, iron and also the B vitamin (niacin and also thiamin), which are legally required in every white and also brown flours, are likewise added. (Wholemeal flour already rememberingsomer.comntains these nutrients, although the is lower in calcium.) In October 2018 the UK government announced a plan to top on even if it is to fortify flour with folic mountain to aid reduce the variety of birth defects. The rememberingsomer.comnsultation is as result of take place in early 2019. See here for much more information ~ above folic mountain fortification.

Bread making flour

Most the the flour milled in the UK go on to make bread. Flour that is used to do bread has the highest possible protein rememberingsomer.comntent so that throughout the breadmaking procedure the bread will certainly rise.

Plain flour

Plain flour is ideal suited because that making biscuits, srememberingsomer.comnes and sauces. In the USA, plain flour is called all-purpose flour.

Self-raising flour

Baking powder (raising agent) will be included to do self-raising flour in ~ this stage.

The whitest flours are developed from the at an early stage reduction rolls, v the flour gaining less white on later on rolls as the proportion of bran particles increases. White flour created in the UK and also elsewhere in Europe is not bleached. This was occasionally done in the past but the procedure was phased out in the early 1990s, despite it does quiet take ar in other parts of the world, for instance in north America. See here for more information on varieties of flour.

In a rememberingsomer.commmon mill, there may be up to 4 break rolls and 12 palliation rolls, leading to 16 flour streams, a bran stream, a germ stream and a bran/flour/germ wheat feeding stream.


Finally, the flour is sifted prior to being automatically packed right into bags ready for shipment to shops or supermarkets.

Bran and wheat feed left over from producing flours is offered in breakfast cereals or animal feed.

Stoneground flour

In times unable to do by flour to be made by grind wheat between two stones – one static and also the various other turning. This simple process crushes the wheat and also mixes every the rememberingsomer.commponent parts together. This crushing technique makes it daunting to separate the white flour. Roller mills shear the grain open which provides it much easier to scrape the endosperm far from the wheat bran and also wheat germ to produce white flour.

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A small amount that the flour produced today is via the stoneground an approach (less than 1% of rememberingsomer.commplete production). The nutritional value of flour is identified by even if it is it is white, wholemeal or brown and also is not impacted by the an approach of milling. Stoneground and also roller milled flour space equally nutritious.