How walk "and, also" + "now, already" link to represent "even"? ns don"t understand just how combining the notions of "and, also" + "now, already" have the right to yield "even". Wiktionary:



Short answer:

Etiam gets much of its an interpretation from et (i.e, as a conjunction and in various other respects), yet it also gets that is emphatic (as well as temporal) definition from iam. This is constant with the Cambridge Dictionary meaning of even i m sorry asserts that it is "used come emphasize a comparison".

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Long answer:

Etiam is similar to et in its usage as a conjunction and in having a somewhat overlapping meaning. Note that Lewis" An elementary school Dictionary contains the definition even in its meaning for et:

et — I. Adv., including to a fact or thought, also, too, besides, moreover, likewise, together well, even...

In some cases, et has even been offered by some authors in means that can be interchangeable v etiam, together Gildersleeve notes:

Instead that etiam, et is occasional in PLAUTUS, in a readjust of person. CICERO supplies it likewise after an adversative conjunction, as vērum et; additionally after nam and also simul; much more often as soon as a pronoun follows, together et ille, et ipse. CAESAR never ever uses that so, SALLUST rarely, but it becomes typical from Livy on. (Gildersleeve"s grammar, p. 302)

Although etiam is periodically used in a temporal feeling (when it means still, even now, etc.), its significance seems to additionally take ~ above new definition in the composition together et + iam more as a issue of focus rather than among time. The is, the adds something new and in ~ the exact same time emphasizes it, together if come say, "Now take note of this," or schematically, "A, B and currently even C..."

The emphatic pressure of etiam has actually been provided by a variety of grammarians. Because that example, Lewis and also Short:

To annex a more important idea, and even, nay, even...

Allen and Greenough"s Grammar:

Etiam (et iam; also, even) is more powerful than quoque (also) and usually comes before the emphatic word, while quoque adheres to it.


Etiam, even (now), yet, still, exaggerates (heightens), and also generally precedes the word to which the belongs. (Gildersleeve"s grammar, p. 301)

A Grammar the the Language (where, as well as speaking of the emphatic function of etiam, the is additionally compared come et):

Etiam and also quoque space in therefore far different in your meaning, that etiam, in the very first place, has actually a wider extent 보다 quoque, because that it contains likewise the idea of our "even;" and, secondly, etiam add to a brand-new circumstance, whereas quoque denotes the addition of a point of a similar kind. Thus etiam is properly used to connect propositions. This difference seems to be effectively expressed in stating the etiam is "and farther," and also quoque "and so, also." together in this path quoque refers to a solitary word, It constantly follows that word; etiam, in similar cases, is normally placed prior to it, however when the connects propositions its ar is arbitrary. Et, too, is sometimes used in the feeling of "also," in timeless prose; e.g., Curt., iii., 31, non errasti, mater, nam et hic Alexander est; Cic., de Legg.

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, ii., 16, quod et nunc multis in fanis fit, because that nunc quoque; in Verr., iv., 61, simul et verebar; and v., l, simul et de illo vulnere — multa dixit; and also often non modo — sed et; e.g., Cic., in Verr., i., 1, non modo Romae, sed et apud exteras nationes; Nepos, Thrasyb., 1, non solum princeps, sed et solus bellum indixit. (See Bremi"s remark on this passage, who claims that sed et is not merely "but also," but constantly "but even." ) yet passages that this type are not really numerous, and not constantly certain, because that the MSS. Usually have actually etiam, so the this usage of et in prose (for poets can not be taken right into account) should at the very least be really much limited, and it need to not be used to that extent in which contemporary rememberingsomer.comists apply it. (Zumpt, et al, A Grammar that the Language, pg. 253)

The foregoing is also interesting in that, as soon as the author speaks that the meaning of etiam as "and farther", he appears to be trying to associate the idea the still through that the even. It"s as if come say that the conjunction etiam takes us still farther to the allude of emphasis.