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Abraham is pertained to by Jews together the founder of the Hebrew people. The twelve tribes of Israel were straight descendants that Abraham.

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Empires rose and empires fell. The Babylonians, the Assyrians, and also the Persians accumulated immense wealth and also power that allowed them to develop capital urban of to mark beauty.

But their cities and also palaces at some point fell right into decay and were covered by countless years that sand and also dust.

One the their fairly powerless modern-day groups outlived those great empires. These world were the Hebrews, known also as Israelites or, later, Jews.

Their early on contribution to mankind was not wealthy empires or groundbreaking technology. Rather, it was the revolutionary idea the there was only one god, a belief known as monotheism. This one Hebrew god was referred to as Yahweh. Come the Hebrews, Yahweh to be all powerful and all knowing, yet past human understanding. The religious beliefs based roughly this god influenced the establishing of Christianity and Islam.

Abraham and also the Torah


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In the years after David and Solomon ruled, the kingdom that the Hebrews was split into two different lands, Israel and also Judah.

The history of the early on Hebrews is known primarily from among their sacred texts, the Torah, i beg your pardon comprises the very first five publications of the Old testament of the Bible. According to the Torah, Abraham is the genealogical patriarch of the Hebrew people.

Abraham to be born in the Sumerian city that Ur. After ~ Abraham"s dad died, Yahweh visited Abraham and also instructed him come smash the idols that his father"s gods, to worship the one and only true god, Yahweh, and to relocate his family members to Canaan. Yahweh promised Abraham the if he followed these laws, that would found a great nation that would live in a soil flowing with milk and also honey.

This land, recognized as Canaan in ancient times, is roughly located in the same location as contemporary Israel.

Abraham"s migration took ar some time in between 2000 B.C.E. And 1700 B.C.E. It developed at a time as soon as the Canaanites live in fairly small, individually governed, walled cities. They to be accustomed come outsiders coming right into their territory. The Hebrews, that were nomadic herders, to be tolerated by the Canaanites.

The land that Abraham and his followers found did not flow so easily with milk and also honey. The dry climate and also rough setting required significant effort to survive. Drought compelled Abraham and his family members to move to Egypt.



The Twelve Tribes

The Torah tells exactly how Abraham had actually two sons: Isaac through his wife Sarah, and Ishmael through his concubine Hagar. The Hebrews trace their heritage through Isaac. Isaac had a child Jacob, that in turn had actually 12 sons. These sons ended up being the leader of the 12 tribes of Israel. Jacob"s many beloved son, Joseph, was sold into slavery by his jealousy brothers. While in captivity, Joseph increased to be the Egyptian pharaoh"s chef minister of the land.


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Jewish hikers lie under in this old tomb. The dig was originally provided to hold much more than a single body, however over the century the roof caved in and exposed the interment place.

When a major drought plagued Canaan, his same brothers came to Egypt, begging for grain. Skip their previous mistreatment of him, Joseph offered them grain and convinced them to continue to be in Egypt.

There, the Hebrews prospered and also became a an excellent nation. They came to be so numerous, the a pharaoh "who walk not know Joseph" enslaved the Hebrews. This pharaoh is thought to be Ramses II (1290-1224 B.C.E.)

The Exodus to Canaan

The Torah then recounts the story that Moses, that led the Hebrews out of Egypt and slavery. This event, recognized as the Exodus, many likely emerged during the reign of the pharaoh Merneptah, between 1224 and also 1211 B.C.E. Archaeologists have found an Egyptian record written ~ above papyrus from this time duration that explains Jews being compelled to leave, further authenticating this story. After ~ what the Hebrews believed were a collection of acts by Yahweh on their behalf, including various plagues top top the Egyptians and their crops and also livestock, Moses led his human being out of Egypt. The Egyptian Exodus lasted around from 1600 come 1200 B.C.E.


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Even in the modern world, Jewish kids still learn to review the Torah according to ancient tradition. The Yemeni Jews here are practicing the Hebrew the they have actually learned native the town mari, or teacher.

According to the Old Testament, the Hebrews wandered in the desert the the Sinai Peninsula (which is in between Egypt and Canaan) for 40 years. Moses obtained the Ten Commandments throughout this time, i m sorry outlined some basic laws administer behavior. He also struggled to save his human being from worshiping gods various other than Yahweh. Moses died prior to he might enter Canaan.

Joshua led the Hebrews earlier into Canaan, whereby they cleared up among the Canaanites and the Philistines. The Old testimony tells of Joshua"s victorious battles versus these people. Archaeologists have found that a number of towns were destroyed around this time. But, they do not agree as to whether such damage was the job-related of the Hebrews or others. End time, the Hebrews started to learn the means of the Canaanites and cleared up down to a life that farming and also herding.

In 722 B.C.E., the northern half of Hebrew lands known as Israel was invaded and also mostly damaged by the Assyrians. The southerly half, known as Judea, survived until around 597 B.C.E., when the Babylonians beat the Judeans and carried many of them earlier as captives come Babylon.

During their captivity in Babylon, Hebrew scribes taped the history of your people and also their relationship with their god Yahweh. After ~ 539 B.C.E., the Persians under Cyrus II overcame Babylon. He enabled the Hebrews to return to their divine city of Jerusalem. But, the Hebrews ongoing to autumn under the supremacy of various other empires. In 70 C.E., the Romans ruined Jerusalem and sent most of the Jews right into an exile the lasted until the 20th century.


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The Ten shed Tribes
What really occurred to the ten tribes of Israel that were conquered by the Assyrians? PBS goes trying to find these lost tribes, finding traces of lock all about the globe. Because that those interested in old mysteries, this is a must-see website.

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The old Hebrew Language and Alphabet
This website is "dedicated to teaching and promoting the study" of old Hebrew, the language the the earliest books of the holy bible were composed in. Sections on analysis the Hebrew alphabet and also on the interpretations of the letters space not to be missed.

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Canaan and old Israel
The college of Pennsylvania Museum that Archaeology and also Anthropology gift this map, timeline, and review of the religion and also economy the Canaan at the moment the Hebrews worked out in this old land. Over there is likewise an interesting look at modern-day archaeology in Canaan.

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Introduction of Biblical Judaism
From the college of Calgary come this quick but colorful arrival to the human being of the Hebrews. Countless topics are covered, including the Hebrew exodus native Egypt, and the presentation the the God"s commandments to Moses at mountain Sinai. There space plenty of photos and an excellent maps to show each section.

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The Hebrews in between Assyria and also Egypt
This is a text-only history of the Hebrews in the old world, back it has actually links to plenty of maps that aid to phone call the story. Numerous movies and stories have actually been created about the Hebrew exodus from Egypt. Yet what happened after the exodus? created by one independent yet fair-minded writer, this website is a great summary of Hebrew history.

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Internet Jewish history Sourcebook
This website from Fordham college is a arsenal of links to major documents around Jews, Judaism, the Hebrews and also Israel from transparent history. A great place to begin any type of research project about the Hebrew people.

See more: Cleveland To Erie Distance From Erie Pa To Cleveland Ohio, How Far Is Erie From Cleveland

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Judaism 101
This "Frequently request Question" website explains facets of Jewish life and also faith, indigenous the Hebrew alphabet come the Halakhah (Jewish law). Assembled by an independent researcher, this textual page also answers countless questions about what that is to it is in Jewish. Don"t miss out on the links to Jewish-related websites at the bottom that the page.

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