Key Points

The Renaissance started in time of spiritual turmoil, particularly surrounding the papacy, i beg your pardon culminated in the western Schism, in which three men simultaneously asserted to be the true pope. The new engagement v Greek Christian works during the Renaissance, and an especially the go back to the initial Greek that the new Testament supported by Humanists Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus, helped pave the means for the protestant Reformation.In enhancement to being the head that the church, the pope came to be one the Italy’s most crucial secular rulers, and also pontiffs such together Julius II often waged campaigns to protect and expand your temporal domains.The Counter-Reformation was a period of Catholic revival initiated in solution to the good news Reformation.

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Terms

The Church in the Late middle Ages

The Renaissance started in time of religious turmoil. The so late Middle ages was a duration of politics intrigue surrounding the papacy, finishing in the western Schism, in i m sorry three males simultaneously declared to it is in the true pope. While the schism was resolved by the council of Constance (1414), a resulting reform movement recognized as Conciliarism search to limit the power of the pope. Although the papacy eventually emerged supreme in ecclesiastical problem by the 5th Council the the Lateran (1511), it was dogged by continued accusations of corruption, most famously in the person of Pope Alexander VI, who was accused variously of simony, nepotism, and fathering four children.

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Pope Alexander VIAlexander VI, a Borgia pope notorious for his corruption.

Churchmen such together Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the church, often based on Humanist textual criticism of the brand-new Testament. In October 1517 Luther released the Ninety-five Theses, complicated papal authority and criticizing its regarded corruption, specifically with regard come instances of marketed indulgences. The Ninety-five Theses caused the Reformation, a break v the roman inn Catholic Church that previously claimed hegemony in western Europe. Humanism and the Renaissance therefore played a direct duty in sparking the Reformation, as well as in plenty of other contemporaneous spiritual debates and also conflicts.

Pope Paul III involved the papal throne (1534–1549) after ~ the sack of Rome in 1527, v uncertainties prevalent in the Catholic Church complying with the protestant Reformation. Nicolaus Copernicus committed De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) to Paul III, who ended up being the grand of Alessandro Farnese (cardinal), who had paintings by Titian, Michelangelo, and Raphael, too as vital collection the drawings, and also who i was delegated the masterpiece that Giulio Clovio, arguably the last significant illuminated manuscript, the Farnese Hours.

The Church and also the Renaissance

The city that Rome, the papacy, and the Papal states were all impacted by the Renaissance. On the one hand, it was a time of great artistic patronage and also architectural magnificence, as soon as the church pardoned and also even funded such artists together Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Bramante, Raphael, Fra Angelico, Donatello, and also da Vinci. ~ above the various other hand, wealthy Italian family members often secured episcopal offices, consisting of the papacy, for their very own members, few of whom were recognized for immorality.

In the revival of neo-Platonism and also other ancient philosophies, Renaissance Humanists walk not reject Christianity; rather to the contrary, plenty of of the Renaissance’s greatest works were devoted to it, and the church patronized plenty of works that Renaissance art. The new ideals of Humanism, although an ext secular in some aspects, developed versus a Christian backdrop, especially in the northern Renaissance. In turn, the Renaissance had actually a profound result on contemporary theology, specifically in the means people regarded the relationship in between man and God.

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Michelangelo’s Pietà in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican CityMichelangelo’s Pietà exemplifies the personality of Renaissance art, combine the timeless aesthetic of Greek art with spiritual imagery, in this case Mother mar holding the body of Jesus after ~ the crucifixion.

In addition to being the head of the church, the pope ended up being one the Italy’s most essential secular rulers, and pontiffs such as Julius II often waged projects to protect and expand your temporal domains. Furthermore, the popes, in a spirit of polished competition with various other Italian lords, spent lavishly both on personal luxuries and public works, repairing or structure churches, bridges, and also a magnificent system of aqueducts in Rome that still role today.

From 1505 to 1626, St. Peter’s Basilica, possibly the most known Christian church, was constructed on the site of the old Constantinian basilica in Rome. This was a time of increased contact with Greek culture, opening up brand-new avenues that learning, particularly in the areas of philosophy, poetry, classics, rhetoric, and also political science, fostering a heart of Humanism–all of which would affect the church.

Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic improvement or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic rebirth initiated in an answer to the good news Reformation, start with the council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending in ~ the close of the Thirty Years’ battle (1648). The Counter-Reformation to be a an extensive effort composed of four major elements—ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurations, new religious order (such together the Jesuits), spirituality movements, and political reform.

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Such reforms consisted of the foundation of seminaries because that the suitable training of clergymans in the spirituality life and also the theological heritages of the church, the reform of spiritual life by return orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements concentrating on the devotional life and a personal relationship v Christ, consisting of the Spanish mystics and the French college of spirituality. It also involved political tasks that contained the roman Inquisition. One primary emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was a mission to reach components of the civilization that had been conquered as predominantly Catholic, and also also shot to reconvert areas, such together Sweden and England, that were at once Catholic but had been Protestantized throughout the Reformation.