French artist Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779).

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Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin (1699-1779) - French painter, one of the most famed painters of the 18th century and also one that the best colorists in the background of painting, famous for his works in the field of tho life and genre painting.

In his work, the artist intentionally avoided the solemn and pastoral-mythological subjects inherent in the arts of his time. The key subject the his quiet lifes and genre scenes, based completely on organic observations and being basically hidden portraits, was the everyday residential life of people from the so-called third estate, conveyed in a calm, sincere and also truthful manner. Chardin, whose activity as an artist marked the flower of realism in the 18th century, continued the legacies of the Dutch and Flemish master of tho life and also genre of the 17th century, enriching this legacy and adding a touch that grace and naturalness to his work

Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin was born top top November 2, 1699 in Paris right into the family members of a cabinetmaker. He operated in the studio the Pierre Jacques Kaz, then through the well known painter and sculptor N. N. Kuapel, through whom Chardin began to paint from nature. Among Chardin"s mentors was J. B. Vanloo, under whose leadership the young artist took part in the repair of 16th century frescoes. In the palace of Fontainebleau.

In 1728 Chardin arranged an exhibition in the collection on the place Dauphine, which lugged him great success. The still lifes shown on it were made in the heart of the Flemish master of the 17th century. Thanks to this works, amongst which were the famed "Scat" and also "Buffet", the artist was chosen a member the the royal Academy as a "painter of flowers, fruits and characteristic subjects."

In the 1730s - 1740s. Chardin developed his ideal genre scenes portraying the life of plain urban workers, civilization of the "third estate" ("Washerwoman", "Delivery Girl", "Hardworking Mother", "Prayer before Dinner").

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Caring nanny, 1747. Oil on canvas, 46.2 x 37 cm.

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Laundress Canvas, oil. 37.5 x 42.7 State Hermitage, St. Petersburg

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distribution girl

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Prayer prior to lunch

Many the Chardin"s paints are dedicated to youngsters ("Little Teacher", "Bubbles", "House the Cards", "Girl with a Flounce"). The images captured on Chardin"s canvases are marked by an important spontaneity, simplicity and also sincerity.

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small teacher

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Soap balloon

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home of cards

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Young draftsman 1737.81x65

In 1731 Chardin married the merchant"s daughter Marguerite Sentard. They had actually a daughter and also a child (who additionally became one artist). Chardin"s daughter died in infancy; virtually simultaneously v her, Margarita died. In 1744 Chardin married Margarita Pouge. The daughter, born that the 2nd marriage, likewise died. Chardin"s son also died (already in adulthood).

In his work, Chardin constantly turns to tho life. Top top his still lifes, there space very few things carefully and thoughtfully arranged: numerous vessels, numerous fruits, kitchen utensils, the usually food of a usual man ("Silver Tureen", "Copper Tank", "Still Life v a Pheasant and also a hunting Bag", "A Glass of Water and also jug "," Pipes and a jug "," tho life v brioche "," silver- Cup ").

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silver Cup

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A glass the water and a jug

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Pipes and jug

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Fruit, pitcher and also glass

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tho life v grapes and pomegranates, 1763, 47x57 Louvre, Paris

The artist"s popularity has grown over the years. The engravings made from his paints are sold very briskly. The painting "Sharmanka" is purchase by the king himself for 1500 livres. In 1743 Chardin ended up being an advisor, and also in 1755 - treasurer the the academy. He is entrusted with the company of annual exhibitions. In 1765 Chardin was elected a member of the Rouen Academy that Painting. The artist is honored v orders from dignitaries. That paints numerous still lifes for the Choisy castle, for the Empress Catherine II he create the paint Still Life with characteristics of the Arts.

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still life with attributes of arts

In 1770, the mighty J. BM Pierre came to be the director of the Academy, overthrowing the patrons the Chardin; as a result, the artist is deprived of his posts. Chardin is experiencing financial difficulties, he is also forced to sell his house.

Due come his deteriorating vision, the artist is compelled to leave oil paints and also work through pastels ("Self-portrait") or draw with a pencil. Among the last works of Chardin - the well known "Self-portrait with a green peak" - the pinnacle of the master"s work.

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Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Simeon The renowned self-portrait through a green visor (1775) is the pinnacle the creativity. Among the last works of the master. Pastel on paper. Louvre, Paris

December 6, 1779 Chardin died, leaving behind end a thousands paintings. Chardin was shortly forgotten through his contemporaries. The former glory returned to him only in the center of the 19th century.

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Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin - great French artist of the 18th century... He ended up being best recognized as one unsurpassed grasp of tho life and also genre painting. Chardin"s work considerably influenced the flourishing of 18th century realism.

French artist Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin to be born in 1699. He live all his life in Paris, in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter. The artist"s teachers to be Pierre Jacques Kaz (1676-1754) and Noel Nicola Coypel (1690-1734). He came to be famous after the "Exhibition of Debutants" in 1728, wherein he presented several of his canvases. Later he was admitted to the Academy as "a depictor the flowers, fruits and also genre scenes." The artist"s contemporaries, as well as connoisseurs of painting in subsequent years, have always admired Chardin"s capacity to watch the essence of objects and also convey the full selection of colors and shades. This function of the artist permitted him to create unusually realistic and deep canvases. His paintings are defined by emotional subtlety, elaboration of details, clarity the the image, harmony and also richness the colors. The protagonists that his portraits space ordinary world of the 3rd estate who space busy v their everyday activities.

In 1728 Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin was admitted come the Paris Academy of Arts. Native 1737 he was a long-term participant in the Paris Salons. In 1743 he became an torture to the Academy that Arts, and also in 1750 treasurer that the Academy. From 1765 he was a member the the Rouen Academy of Sciences, Literature and Fine Arts. The good French artist passed away on December 6, 1779. After ~ himself, Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin left a well-off legacy. His paintings are in major museums around the world, including in St. Petersburg.

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Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin paints with titles

Self-portrait

Art attributes and also awards that complement them

Buffet

Governess

Girl clean vegetables

Girl with racket and shuttlecock

Canary

House of Cards II

Sexual young in the cellar

Prayer before lunch

Bubble

Still life with attributes of art

Still life v grapes and also pomegranates

Still life with game and hunting dog

Laundress

Delivery girl

Zealous maid

Draftsman

Silver tureen

Silver Cup

Hardworking mom

Biography of the an excellent French artist Chardin (1699-1779) is devoid of memorable events and also bright dates. This, of course, walk not typical that Chardin live his life serenely. No, that knew a good grief: together a middle-aged man, he lost his lover wife and also two children. “These losses, - the biographer testified, - he skilled in his own method - working”.

Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin he lived v dignity, never ever grudgingly, inhabited only through his art, to which he confidently and also passionately devoted himself in his at an early stage youth. Indigenous his father, a woodcarver, painter and also artisan together, Chardin inherited his check out of art. He worked, considering paint to it is in a craft, a manual skill the required over all skills, honesty and also work. And the first thing the captivates the viewer in Chardin"s works now is the patience confidence the a master who to know the craft. The prejudices, seductions and fantasies of his excellent century stayed somewhere external the walls of his workshop and, probably, outside his field of vision ... Yet Chardin was no at every a hermit. Top top the contrary, he to be sociable, benevolent and also signs the respect for himself, without looking for them ~ above purpose, was always glad. Fortunately, the hardly knew the need. Chardin"s works were constantly eagerly bought, and also after Chardin was introduced to King luigi XV in 1740, the still obtained a pension, which raised as various other "royal" artists died (Boucher, because that example): your pensions were added to Chardin"s. In addition, becoming an academician in ~ the period of forty, Chardin later on becomes an advisor to the academy, and then treasurer. The post of treasurer, among the first in the Academy that Arts, forever secured the honor and also an independent place ...

Chardin usually started favor everyone else: he worked as an apprentice with masters - Kaz, Kuapel, and later - Vanloo. On the canvases that his patrons, he painted meaningless objects: a gun in a searching scene, beaten game, household items, fruits, vegetables, flowers. The future genius of quiet life left his first experiments unrecognized, under a false surname ... Chardin is a rare example of one artist who created without a teacher. Chardin was deeply indifferent to the college of pompous and stilted historic painting. She provided him nothing. And if we still talk about Chardin"s apprenticeship, then he studied v the old Flemish and Dutch masters, lovingly attentive to daily life, illustration intently and good-naturedly spied moments of life. Undoubtedly, the human being they created, very reliable in details, and in basic - contempt transformed, fantastic, to be for Chardin a resource of inspiration and also a school of skill.

Jean Baptiste Chardin: paintings

Chardin"s genre paintings depict "scenes of daily life", a cozy and also stable life: a prayer before dinner, a governess with a dressed-up young lady in former of a mirror, a noble person"s recovery, a boy with a top, a girl with a shuttlecock ...

Chardin"s category are identified by simplicity of content, strength and also harmony the colors, softness and also richness the the brush. In addition, Chardin"s eyesight is striking, who was able to discern, behind the simplicity the content, the facility life that objects in the air, shade reflexes, the beat of color and light, the pat of color and also contour; Chardin knew how to convey all this exhaustively, to the illusion of reality, and also with exquisite directness, favor the great Dutch. And also here, of course, we have the right to talk about the affinity the style, about the proximity that the worldview, about anything, just not about imitation, although the was through the master of Holland and also Flanders the the first admirers contrasted Chardin.

The very first work that really glorified Chardin to be ... A street sign. Because that the facility of the Parisian barber, and also at the exact same time the surgeon, Chardin created a duel that ended in bloodshed, and all Paris pertained to watch the heartbreaking scene and admire the masterful explicate of people, horses, carriages ... The is not clear why Chardin created this sign. For money? for an experiment? This authorize is Chardin"s only concession to the climate generally welcomed view the the plot. Typically Chardin denotes only a motive that provides an exterior reason because that the work-related of the brush and also imagination. Painting "Return from the Market" - she is in former of girlfriend - testifies come this.

Chardin: Coming back from the market. Summary of the picture

The painting "Returning from the Market" (1739) was painted with tiny dense strokes, the repaint layer was together if sculpted through a brush.

Large loaves of bread lugged by the hostess, one earthen pot top top the table, pot-bellied bottles of special glass - every this to be done v a deep knowledge of the framework of things, your plastic expressiveness ... To the left that the main character is an open up door to an additional room where there is a large copper water tank, and also in the depth - another door, versus its lift - a mrs figure.

Chardin creates a poetic and voluminous photo of life, whereby women, breads, party on the floor are not vital in and also of themselves, however their interconnection, the interaction in between them. Steadfastly, like a scientist, and enthusiastically, choose a poet, Chardin never exhausted of researching this fundamental interaction that air, people, and objects. This to be the significance for Chardin. "They use paints," the said, "but write through feeling." Chardin was motivated by the feeling of the hidden homogeneity of all the exists in nature. This is probably why Chardin in 1756 abandoned the genre forever and practically exclusively took up still life, i beg your pardon was an ext suitable for his purposes. And therefore, Chardin achieved the utmost brilliance in the image of the most an overwhelming to image: air and also white. Here, the typically modest and unassuming Chardin turned right into a philosopher. “Oh, Chardin! - Diderot exclaimed. - you rub not white, red and black paints on her palette: you take matter, air and light top top the tip of a brush and put that on the canvas ... "

The best of the couple of portraits painted Chardin,- this is self-portrait 1771.

It was made in pastel, as as result of an eye an illness the master had to leaving the oil. Chardin shown himself fairly simply: in a nightcap v a blue ribbon, in a brown residence jacket and a scarf, through a pince-nez sliding under his nose. And also all the more, in comparison to the shabby look, the piercing, young look of old period eyes over pince-nez affect the viewer. This is the look of one artist who, in his old age, reached that purity and also freedom the style, when skill borders on omnipotence.

V. Alekseev, based upon the materials of the newspaper "Family and also School", 1974

JEAN-BATIST CHARDIN

Chardin to be the greatest realist painter of his time.

Renou composed in one obituary: “It involuntarily seems that he had actually eyes arranged choose a prism to distinguish in between different colour of objects, elusive transitions from light to shadow. Nobody knew better the magic of chiaroscuro. "

Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin was born top top November 2, 1699 in Paris, the son of a understand woodcarver that performed facility artwork.

Parents sympathized v his first successes in drawing, and also then sent out their child to study painting in the workshop of Pierre Jacques Kaz. For numerous years, he replicated paintings here, among which were works of church content.

He received his first real great in the workshop of Noel Nicolas Coypel. Help the teacher to do accessories in his paintings, he acquired an extraordinary art of showing all type of meaningless objects.

One that his teachers was the artist J.-B. Vanloo, who attracted Chardin to work-related on the reconstruction of frescoes in the Fontainebleau palace. Climate the young artist entered the Paris Academy the St. Bows come perfect the still life genre. In 1724 he got the honorary location of a member of this Academy. He first exhibited number of of his functions at an exhibition the young artists in 1728. The paintings "Scat" (1727) and also "Buffet" (1728) to be a substantial success and also opened the doors because that Chardin come the imperial Academy, wherein he was accepted as "a artist of flowers, fruits and characteristic subjects."

The thirties – forties to be the heyday the the artist"s work. Staying true come his style, Chardin was influenced by the arts of the dutch masters of genre painting, paints by David Teniers and also Gerard Dow. Chardin creates the best genre compositions, because that the very first time in French art, illustrating a fully new people - the life of the third estate: "Lady Sealing a Letter" (1732), "House that Cards" (about 1737), "Woman skin Vegetables" (1738), "Washerwoman "(About 1737)," The Needlewoman "," return from the market "(1739)," Governess "(1739)," Hardworking mommy "(1740)," Prayer prior to Dinner "(1744).

Since 1737, Chardin i do not care a long-term member the the Paris Salons. His work-related is well-known with marchans (art dealers) and also critics. Diderot enthusiastically writes around him: “That"s who knows just how to develop harmony of colors and chiaroscuro! You execute not recognize which of these paintings to opt because that - they space equally perfect ... This is nature itself, if us talk around the truthfulness of forms and colors. " In the salon of 1738, Chardin verified the paintings "The Sex Boy" and "The Washer of Dishes" (both - 1738), as well as two portraits - "The Boy with the Whirligig" and "The Young male with the Violin" (both - 1738).

Most often, the artist portrayed women and children. A hardworking hostess, a love mother, a caring governess or children with your spontaneity and innocent funny - these space the main personalities of Chardin. Because that example, the painting "Washerwoman" depicts a mrs washing clothes and also a boy sitting beside her blow bubbles through a straw. The sun glare dram on the soap bubble and also the overflow of various shades ~ above the foam is visible.

In 1731, after several years of acquaintance, Chardin married the merchant"s daughter Marguerite Sentard. Quickly they will have actually a son, Pierre, who later became an artist, and also in 1733 - a daughter. But two years pass, and the artist sick a grievous loss, as soon as both his wife and small daughter die on the very same day. That married again only in 1744. His favored one was Françoise Marguerite Pouget, the widow of a bourgeois. Yet even right here Chardin is in because that a new misfortune - a child dies indigenous a new marriage.

Misfortunes in his personal life walk not influence the artist"s work. In the year 1730-1740 he created his finest paintings, because that the first time in French art, illustrating ordinary Parisians.

“... The denial of entertainment and deliberate effects, devotion come nature, the photo of people and things together they deserve to be watched in life, but as they had actually never been shown by French artists, attracted fist to these works.

Chardin"s paints are chamber in content, and their tiny format is the only feasible one. Our attention is concentrated on a limited, yet noteworthy round of life - ~ above the warmth of human feelings, on the an excellent consent that power in the families of humble Parisians. This mood is imbued with practically every work-related of his.

With reverence and also genuine lyricism, the artist portrays a woman mentor who fosters an excellent feelings in she pets. And also this appeal to the child"s mind, concern for his ethical upbringing, because that his observance that the norms of habits are characteristic and also typical of the time when educational ideas were spread out ("Prayer before dinner", "Governess"), ”writes Yu.G. Shapiro.

In 1743, Chardin was chosen advisor come the royal Academy, and also in 1755 he became its treasurer. In 1765, the artist was likewise elected a member of an additional academy - Rouen.

A substantial place in the work of Chardin, especially since the fifties, is occupied by a quiet life: "Organ and birds" (about 1751), "Cut lemon" (about 1760), "Dessert" (1763), "Kitchen table", "Copper tank" , "Pipes and a Jug", "Still Life with qualities of the Arts" (1766), "Basket through Peaches" (1768).

The ability to repaint with repaint to convey the materiality of each thing aroused admiration because that Diderot. He called Chardin"s skill witchcraft. Diderot wrote: “Oh, Chardin, these space not white, red and black paints the you rub on your palette, yet the an extremely essence of objects; you take it air and also light at the pointer of your brush and also apply them to the canvas. "

Chardin asserted in his paints the value and also significance the the product world and also the surrounding real life. In his still lifes, the artist does not favor lush and also decoratively overloaded compositions. That is limited to a small variety of lovingly selected subjects, very modest and unobtrusive.

His quiet life "The qualities of the Arts" is differentiated by that is simplicity, balance that composition and material certainty of objects. The beauty beauty of the canvas lies in the calm and clear feeling of harmony that penetrates it, wherein the restrained, grayish shade scale so subtly corresponds to the everydayness and also at the very same time sophistication of the chosen things. Introducing us into the quiet and serious setting of the imaginative workshop, this objects were an alleged to at the same time develop a type of allegorical photo of the arts and sciences. Chardin own a number of still lifes of this kind, such as "Attribute of Music".

The communication of the Chardin palette is a silvery gray tone. Raphaeli gave an excellent explanation the this choice of the artist: “When you pick a fruit - a peach, plum or a bunch the grapes, you check out on it what we contact fluff, a special type of silvery bloom. If you put such a fruit on the table, the light, the beat of reflexes indigenous the objects surrounding it will offer its color grayish shades. Finally, the air, with its bluish-gray tone, envelops every objects. This leads to the reality that the many intense color of nature seem come bathe in anywhere scattered lilac-gray shades that only a ethereal colorist sees, and it is the visibility of together a grayish variety that allows us to recognize a an excellent colorist. A colorist is not at all the one who puts a lot of colors top top the canvas, but only the one who perceives and also fixes all these grayish shades in his painting. Chardin need to be related to as among our greatest colorists, since among our master he not just saw the finest, but additionally knew just how to ideal convey those breakable grayish shades the are created by light, reflexes and air. "

As a an outcome of intrigues top top the part of enemies, the artist"s health was undermined. A hefty blow because that him to be the sudden disappearance of his kid (1774). In spite of his progressed age and illness, he continued to work, but his jae won situation came to be disastrous. The master was compelled to market his house. Having abandoned treasury affairs in ~ the Academy, he decided to dedicate the remainder of his toughness to painting.

The understand paints two wonderful portraits in pastel technique - "Self-portrait v a eco-friendly visor" and also "Portrait the a wife" (both - 1775).

“The first impression the a self-portrait is a feeling of unusualness. The artist depicted himself in a nightcap, with a casually bound scarf - the looks prefer a typical stay-at-home burgher, who takes little care of himself, is old, good-natured, a tiny funny. But already in the next moment, as soon as the viewer meets his gaze, the bewilderment disappears ... We identify the artist who likewise carefully, calmly and seriously looks right into life in order to confirm with his poetic talent top top the basis of life experience only what is reasonable, useful, humane " , - writes Yu.G. Shapiro.

from the publication Encyclopedic dictionary (X-Z) writer Brockhaus F.A.

Chardin Chardin - (Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin, 1699 - 1779) - French. Painter, pupil of P. J. Kaz and also Noel Coypel. Help the last to execute accessories in his paintings, he acquired an extraordinary art of portraying inanimate objects of every kinds and decided to devote himself

indigenous the book an excellent Soviet Encyclopedia (BA) the the author TSB

indigenous the book an excellent Soviet Encyclopedia (BI) the the author TSB

indigenous the book great Soviet Encyclopedia (GR) of the writer TSB

Greuze Jean Baptiste Greuze Jean Baptiste (21.8.1725, Tournus, Burgundy, - 21.3.1805, Paris), French painter. Between 1745 and 1750 he studied in Lyon under C. Grandon, then at the imperial Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris. In 1755-56 he was in Italy. Genre compositions G. ("Village engagement",

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native the book an excellent Soviet Encyclopedia (CL) that the writer TSB

from the book great Soviet Encyclopedia (PE) that the author TSB

indigenous the book an excellent Soviet Encyclopedia (CE) the the author TSB

indigenous the publication of Aphorisms the writer Ermishin Oleg

indigenous the publication The latest philosophical thesaurus author Gritsanov Alexander Alekseevich

from the author"s publication

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) naturalist, coined the term "biology" In whatever that nature functions on, the does nothing

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Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) philosopher, theologian Willy-nilly, man concerns himself again and in every little thing that he sees, considers himself. For male there is no future meant as a an outcome of evolution, outside of his union through others people, we know ourselves and

from the author"s publication

TEILLARD DE CHARDIN (Teilhard de Chardin) Pierre (1881-1955) - French naturalist, member of the Jesuit stimulate (1899), priest (since 1911), thinker and also mystic. Descendant the Voltaire, that was the great-uncle of T."s mother. Writer of the principle of "Christian evolutionism". Professor of the room of Geology

Few of the artists will remember the he loved everything around him as Jean Baptiste Siméon Chardin... His passionate admirer, French theorist Denis Diderot, spoke around the skill of this painter:

“Oh, Chardin, it’s no the white, red and black colors that you obstacle on her palette, but the really essence of objects; you take air and also light in ~ the reminder of her brush and apply them come the canvas! "

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They say that Chardin never ever left Paris. He to be born in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés 4 minutes 1 in 1699, and also lived here until his death.

The capacity to repaint led Chardin come the workshop that Noel Coypel, where he did every sorts of little artistic work: he helped the grasp to depict details, accessories, backgrounds top top canvases. But this assisted Chardin discover to an alert little things and draw a wide range of objects. Therefore, the is no surprising that he was attracted by the genre of still life.

Chardin started with a snapshot of vegetables, fruits, fruits and various family items. And also he did it so skillfully that few of his functions were also mistaken because that the canvases of prominent Dutch tho life masters. However this did not flatter the young artist, and also he ongoing to boost his skills.

Glory pertained to Chardin in 1728 after ~ the "Exhibition of Debutants", i beg your pardon was organized in Paris top top the location Dauphin. He gift a collection of his canvases, amongst which was the still life "Scat". The comprehensive carcass of an inhabitant that the deep sea suspended above the table is so exceptional that you deserve to smell the gutted fish. And also this is the pinnacle the the tho life talent.

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An honorary member that the French Academy that Painting and Nicolas de Largillière could not pass by the picture. Later, it to be on his recommendation that Chardin also became a member the the Academy.

The artist did not limit self to tho life. He preferred the quiet life and also everyday life of ordinary people, so he gradually involved the genre. These functions were identified by a an easy and warm content, but they retained a craving for little details and also accessories from a tho life. Painting the daily life of the third estate in soft, expressive colors and also a realistic manner, Chardin, without learning it, added to the birth of a brand-new trend in art.

To catch a real minute from life - this task Chardin tried to satisfy in his work. Among his most well known paintings "Prayer prior to dinner" is no replete with bright colors, but at the exact same time radiates kindness and also peace.

It depicts a constant plot of the time: a mommy seats her daughters who room playing at the table and also makes certain that the ruddy girls review a prayer. The plot unfolds in ~ a tiny room. By its decoration, we understand that this is a family members of typical income. White colors emphasize the spiritual purity that the family and also the innocence of girls. And soft browns add warmth to this small Parisian home.

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In the paint "Boy v Whirligig" Chardin verified the liveliness that a young character. The young looked up from boring textbooks to play v the whirligig - the details in the picture tell us about this. The child"s face is full of lively interest in what is happening, and also the pat of light and also its lively facial expressions provide the canvas spontaneity and truthfulness.

At a later on stage in his work, Chardin showed to it is in an remarkable portrait painter. The deals with of his characters virtually always look dignified and peaceful. Chardin was able to convey this confidence and also calmness to the audience. And also this was very valuable, because it was specifically peace and stability that the residents of France short so much at the finish of the 18th century.

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The artist himself was a living instance of a harmonious existence with the environment, i m sorry is plainly reflected in his self-portrait. On it we see: a man in a headscarf that calmly looks v his pince-nez at the viewer. In his rigid is the wisdom got over the long years the creativity.