Iron is an element the the eighth group of the 4th period in the Periodic Table. That is a malleable silvery metal with great electroconductivity and pronounced magnetic properties. In nature steel is mainly encountered in one oxidized state – because that example brown iron ore Fe₂O₃·3H₂O, red stole ore Fe₂O₃ (hematite), pyrite FeS₂, magnetic stole ore Fe₃O₄.
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Obtaining iron and its reaction with simple substances
Metallic steel is obtained in industry by reducing it from stole oxide with carbon monoxide CO:Obtaining carbon (IV) oxide indigenous coal:
C + O₂ = CO₂;Obtaining carbon II oxide (reducer because that obtaining iron):
CO₂ + C = 2CO;Reduction that iron native iron oxide:
Fe₂O₃ + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO₂.
Iron can additionally be obtained directly by reducing it through hydrogen at a temperature the 1000 ᵒC (1832 ᵒF):
Fe₂O₃ + 3H₂ = 2Fe + 3H₂O.
Chemically pure stole is obtained through electrolysis of the solution of its salt:
K(-): 1) 2H₂O + 2e = H₂ + 2OH⁻;Fe²⁺ + 2e = Fe(0).
A(+): 2H₂O - 4e = O₂ + 4H⁺.
FeSO₄ + 2H₂O = Fe + H₂ + O₂ + H₂SO₄.
With non-metals, stole reacts at high temperatures:
3Fe + 2O₂ = Fe₃O₄ (a mixture of stole (II) and also (III) oxides form);
Fe + S = FeS;
2Fe + 3Br₂ = 2FeBr₃.
Reactions the iron v complex substances
At a temperature of 700 ᵒC (1292 ᵒF), stole reacts with benzol through the formation of iron carbide:
18Fe + C₆H₆ = 6Fe₃C + 3H₂.
At room temperature in air and in the presence the moisture, iron corrodes (corrosion is the spontaneous disintegration that metal under the impact that the environment):
4Fe + 3O₂ + 6H₂O = 4Fe(OH)₃ (reaction takes location rather slowly in normal conditions).
When stole is fused with an alkali in the presence of nitrate, ferrates kind on the cation of the alkali:
Fe + 3NaNO₃ + 2NaOH = Na₂FeO₄ + 3NaNO₂ + H₂O.
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Iron enters into a displacement reaction readily (reactions in which atom or groups of atom of the same initial substance replace atom or teams of atom of another initial substance – because that example according to the system АВ + С = АС + В). With diluted acids, iron reacts with the formation of iron (II) salt and hydrogen:
Fe + 2HCl = FeCl₂ + H₂.
Concentrated nitric acid (and concentrated cold sulfuric acid) passivates iron, and this reaction does not take place. Through concentrated hot sulfuric acid and also diluted nitric acid, acid reacts as follows:
Fe + 6H₂SO₄ = Fe₂(SO₄)₃ + 3SO₂ + 6H₂O (only with heating);
Fe + 4HNO₃ = Fe(NO₃)₃ + NO + 2H₂O.
With salts, iron may likewise enter into a displacement reaction. Between copper (II) sulfate and metallic iron, the following reaction takes location (an example of a typical displacement reaction between inorganic substances):
Fe + CuSO₄ = FeSO₄ + Cu (iron displaces copper in the salt solution; the iron dissolves, turning into solution, and metallic copper that a reddish color is released).
The reaction does not take ar in this method with every salts – displacement is just possible if the displacing metal is more reactive than the displaced one. Together iron is to the left of copper in the reactivity series (is reactivity in the series decreases indigenous left come right), we might say the iron is a much more active metal 보다 copper. This is why that displaces copper from copper salt solution.
We might observe part visual effects as soon as carrying the end this reaction. CuSO₄ (“copper sulfate” or copper (II) sulfate) is a salt through a bluish color. When a silvery stole bar is put in a copper sulfate solution, the solution slowly beginning to change color – the bright blue color gradually turns eco-friendly (the salt FeSO₄ which develops in replacement has actually a environment-friendly color). Metallic copper of a reddish color likewise starts to kind around the dissolving steel bar. Together the copper in this reaction has a rather loose structure, it might separate from the iron bar and precipitate.
The reaction between copper sulfate and iron is oxidation-reduction: stole is oxidized and also copper is reduced:
Fe + CuSO₄ = FeSO₄ + Cu;
There space two processes:
Cu²⁺ + 2e = Cu⁰ (reduction process, Cu²⁺ is the oxidizer);
Fe⁰ – 2e = Fe²⁺ (oxidation process, Fe⁰ is the reducer).
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Metallic copper is often provided for the manufacture the pipes, wires and power cables. Copper alloys are likewise often supplied in practice – for example, bronze (copper and also tin), brass (copper and also zinc) and duralumin (copper and aluminum).
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Iron has discovered an application in practically all branches that industry – iron salt are supplied as catalysts in organic synthesis (for example FeCl₃), to purifying water and manufacturer iron alloys – because that example cast iron and various steels (both types of alloys contain iron and also carbon in different ratios).