Iron is an el­e­ment the the eighth group of the 4th pe­ri­od in the Pe­ri­od­ic Ta­ble. That is a mal­leable sil­very met­al with great elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty and pro­nounced mag­net­ic prop­er­ties. In na­ture steel is main­ly en­coun­tered in one ox­i­dized state – because that ex­am­ple brown iron ore Fe₂O₃·3H₂O, red stole ore Fe₂O₃ (hematite), pyrite FeS₂, mag­net­ic stole ore Fe₃O₄.

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Ob­tain­ing iron and its re­ac­tion with sim­ple sub­stances


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steel

Metal­lic steel is ob­tained in in­dus­try by re­duc­ing it from stole ox­ide with car­bon monox­ide CO:

Ob­tain­ing car­bon (IV) ox­ide indigenous coal:

C + O₂ = CO₂;

Ob­tain­ing car­bon II ox­ide (re­duc­er because that ob­tain­ing iron):

CO₂ + C = 2CO;

Re­duc­tion that iron native iron ox­ide:

Fe₂O₃ + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO₂.

Iron can additionally be ob­tained di­rect­ly by re­duc­ing it through hy­dro­gen at a tem­per­a­ture the 1000 ᵒC (1832 ᵒF):

Fe₂O₃ + 3H₂ = 2Fe + 3H₂O.

Chem­i­cal­ly pure stole is ob­tained through elec­trol­y­sis of the so­lu­tion of its salt:

K(-): 1) 2H₂O + 2e = H₂ + 2OH⁻;

Fe²⁺ + 2e = Fe(0).

A(+): 2H₂O - 4e = O₂ + 4H⁺.

Sum­mar­i­ly:

Fe­S­O₄ + 2H₂O = Fe + H₂ + O₂ + H₂­SO₄.

With non-met­als, stole re­acts at high tem­per­a­tures:

3Fe + 2O₂ = Fe₃O₄ (a mix­ture of stole (II) and also (III) ox­ides form);

Fe + S = FeS;

2Fe + 3Br₂ = 2FeBr₃.


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Fe₃O₄

Re­ac­tions the iron v com­plex sub­stances

At a tem­per­a­ture of 700 ᵒC (1292 ᵒF), stole re­acts with ben­zol through the for­ma­tion of iron car­bide:

18Fe + C₆H₆ = 6Fe₃C + 3H₂.

At room tem­per­a­ture in air and in the pres­ence the mois­ture, iron cor­rodes (cor­ro­sion is the spon­ta­neous dis­in­te­gra­tion that met­al un­der the im­pact that the en­vi­ron­ment):

4Fe + 3O₂ + 6H₂O = 4Fe(OH)₃ (re­ac­tion takes location rather slow­ly in nor­mal con­di­tions).


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Corrosion

When stole is fused with an al­ka­li in the pres­ence of ni­trate, fer­rates kind on the cation of the al­ka­li:

Fe + 3NaNO₃ + 2NaOH = Na₂FeO₄ + 3NaNO₂ + H₂O.

Click right here for ex­cit­ing ex­per­i­ments through iron.

Iron en­ters into a dis­place­ment re­ac­tion read­i­ly (re­ac­tions in which atom or groups of atom of the same ini­tial sub­stance re­place atom or teams of atom of an­oth­er ini­tial sub­stance – because that ex­am­ple ac­cord­ing to the system АВ + С = АС + В). With di­lut­ed acids, iron re­acts with the for­ma­tion of iron (II) salt and hy­dro­gen:

Fe + 2HCl = Fe­Cl₂ + H₂.

Con­cen­trat­ed ni­tric acid (and con­cen­trat­ed cold sul­fu­ric acid) pas­si­vates iron, and this re­ac­tion does not take place. Through con­cen­trat­ed hot sul­fu­ric acid and also di­lut­ed ni­tric acid, acid re­acts as fol­lows:

Fe + 6H₂­SO₄ = Fe₂(SO₄)₃ + 3SO₂ + 6H₂O (only with heat­ing);

Fe + 4H­NO₃ = Fe(NO₃)₃ + NO + 2H₂O.

With salts, iron may likewise en­ter into a dis­place­ment re­ac­tion. Be­tween cop­per (II) sul­fate and metal­lic iron, the fol­low­ing re­ac­tion takes location (an ex­am­ple of a typ­i­cal dis­place­ment re­ac­tion be­tween in­or­gan­ic sub­stances):

Fe + Cu­SO₄ = Fe­S­O₄ + Cu (iron dis­places cop­per in the salt so­lu­tion; the iron dis­solves, turn­ing into so­lu­tion, and metal­lic cop­per that a red­dish col­or is re­leased).


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Copper sulfate

The re­ac­tion does not take ar in this method with every salts – dis­place­ment is just pos­si­ble if the dis­plac­ing met­al is more re­ac­tive than the dis­placed one. Together iron is to the left of cop­per in the re­ac­tiv­i­ty se­ries (is re­ac­tiv­i­ty in the se­ries de­creas­es indigenous left come right), we might say the iron is a much more ac­tive met­al 보다 cop­per. This is why that dis­places cop­per from cop­per salt so­lu­tion.

We might ob­serve part vis­ual ef­fects as soon as car­ry­ing the end this re­ac­tion. Cu­SO₄ (“cop­per sul­fate” or cop­per (II) sul­fate) is a salt through a bluish col­or. When a sil­very stole bar is put in a cop­per sul­fate so­lu­tion, the so­lu­tion slow­ly beginning to change col­or – the bright blue col­or grad­u­al­ly turns eco-friendly (the salt Fe­S­O₄ which develops in re­place­ment has actually a environment-friendly col­or). Metal­lic cop­per of a red­dish col­or likewise starts to kind around the dis­solv­ing steel bar. Together the cop­per in this re­ac­tion has a rather loose struc­ture, it might sep­a­rate from the iron bar and pre­cip­i­tate.

The re­ac­tion be­tween cop­per sul­fate and iron is ox­i­da­tion-re­duc­tion: stole is ox­i­dized and also cop­per is re­duced:

Fe + Cu­SO₄ = Fe­S­O₄ + Cu;

There space two pro­cess­es:

Cu²⁺ + 2e = Cu⁰ (re­duc­tion process, Cu²⁺ is the ox­i­diz­er);

Fe⁰ – 2e = Fe²⁺ (ox­i­da­tion process, Fe⁰ is the re­duc­er).


Oth­er ex­cit­ing ex­per­i­ments through cop­per


Metal­lic cop­per is of­ten provided for the man­u­fac­ture the pipes, wires and pow­er ca­bles. Cop­per al­loys are likewise of­ten supplied in prac­tice – for ex­am­ple, bronze (cop­per and also tin), brass (cop­per and also zinc) and du­ra­lu­min (cop­per and alu­minum).

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Iron has discovered an ap­pli­ca­tion in prac­ti­cal­ly all branch­es that in­dus­try – iron salt are supplied as cat­a­lysts in or­gan­ic syn­the­sis (for ex­am­ple Fe­Cl₃), to pu­ri­fy­ing wa­ter and man­u­fac­tur­er iron al­loys – because that ex­am­ple cast iron and var­i­ous steels (both types of al­loys con­tain iron and also car­bon in dif­fer­ent ra­tios).