released on April 24, 2020 through Jack Caulfield. amendment on October 22, 2020.

\"*\"

Step 3: writing a first draft

Once you have actually a clean idea of her structure, the time to produce a full first draft.

You are watching: In the proofreading stage of the writing process, you are most likely to

This procedure can be rather non-linear. For example, that reasonable to start writing v the main body the the text, saving the advent for later once you have actually a fingerprint idea the the text you’re introducing.

To offer structure to her writing, use your outline as a framework. Make sure that every paragraph has actually a clear central focus that relates to your as whole argument.

Hover over the parts of the example, from a literary evaluation essay top top Mansfield Park, to see exactly how a paragraph is constructed.

Example of a paragraph

object sentence.\" data-kb-color=\"blue\">The personality of Mrs. Norris provides another example the the power of morals in Mansfield Park. Quotations from the novel.\" data-kb-color=\"green\">Early in the novel, she is explained in scathing terms as one who knows “how come dictate liberality to others: however her love the money was same to her love of directing” (p. 7). This hypocrisy does no interfere through her self-conceit as “the most liberal-minded sister and also aunt in the world” (p. 7). Mrs. Norris is strongly pertained to with showing up charitable, but unwilling to do any an individual sacrifices to accomplish this. Instead, she stage-manages the charitable actions of others, never acknowledging that her schemes perform not put her very own time or money ~ above the line. In this way, Austen again mirrors us a personality whose morally upright behavior is basically a performance—for whom the goal of doing good is less crucial than the score of seeming good.


When you move onto a different topic, start a new paragraph. Use appropriate transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas.

The score at this stage is to acquire a draft completed, not to make everything perfect as you walk along. As soon as you have actually a full draft in front of you, you’ll have a clearer idea that where advancement is needed.

Give you yourself a an initial draft deadline that leaves you a reasonable size of time to revise, edit, and also proofread before the last deadline. For a longer text favor a dissertation, you and also your supervisor could agree ~ above deadlines because that individual chapters.

Step 4: Redrafting and also revising

Now it’s time come look critically in ~ your an initial draft and find potential areas for improvement. Redrafting means substantially including or remove content, when revising requires making transforms to structure and reformulating arguments.

Evaluating the first draft

It can be daunting to look at objectively in ~ your very own writing. Your perspective can be positive or negatively biased—especially if you shot to assess your job-related shortly after ~ finishing it.

It’s ideal to leaving your work-related alone because that at least a day or two after perfect the very first draft. Come back after a break to advice it with fresh eyes; you will do it spot things you wouldn’t have otherwise.

When assessing your composing at this stage, you’re mainly searching for larger problems such as changes to your arguments or structure. Beginning with bigger pertains to saves friend time—there’s no point perfecting the grammar of something you finish up cutting the end anyway.

Right now, you looking for:

Arguments that are unclear or illogical.Areas where information would be much better presented in a different order.Passages where extr information or explanation is needed.Passages that are irrelevant come your overall argument.

For example, in our paper on Mansfield Park, we could realize the discussion would be more powerful with an ext direct consideration of the protagonist Fanny Price, and also decide to try to find an are for this in i IV.

For part assignments, you’ll receive feedback top top your very first draft from a supervisor or peer. Be sure to pay close attention to what they tell you, together their advice will usually give you a clearer sense of which facets of your text need improvement.

Redrafting and revising

Once you’ve chose where changes are needed, do the big changes first, together these are most likely to have knock-on results on the rest. Depending upon what your text needs, this step could involve:

Making changes to your overall argument.Reordering the text.Cutting parts of the text.Adding new text.

You deserve to go back and forth in between writing, redrafting and revising number of times till you have a last draft that you’re happy with.

Think around what changes you have the right to realistically accomplish in the time you have. If you are running short on time, girlfriend don’t desire to leave your text in a confusing state halfway through redrafting, therefore make sure to prioritize the most crucial changes.

Step 5: Editing and also proofreading

Editing concentrates on local comes to like clarity and sentence structure. Proofreading entails reading the text closely to remove typos and also ensure stylistic consistency.

Editing because that grammar and also clarity

When editing, you want to certain your text is clear, concise, and also grammatically correct. She looking the end for:

Grammatical errors.Ambiguous phrasings.

In your initial draft, it’s usual to finish up with a many sentences that room poorly formulated. Look at critically at where your meaning could be conveyed in a more effective way or in fewer words, and watch out for common sentence framework mistakes like run-on sentences and sentence fragments:

Editing example
Austen’s style is commonly humorous. Her characters are often described as “witty,” return this is much less true the Mansfield Park.

Proofreading for tiny mistakes and typos

When proofreading, an initial look the end for typos in her text:

Spelling errors.Missing words.Missing or excess spaces.

Use your word processor’s integrated spell check, but don’t intend to uncover 100% of concerns in this way. Review through your text line by line, watching out for problem locations highlighted through the software program but also for any kind of other concerns it might have missed.

For example, in the adhering to phrase we notification several errors:

Proofreading example
Mary Crawfords personality is a complicated one and her relationships with Fanny and Edmund experience several changes through out the novel.Mary Crawford’s personality is a complex one, and also her relationships with both Fanny and also Edmund experience several changes throughout the novel.

Proofreading for stylistic consistency

There space several concerns in academic writing wherein you can choose in between multiple different standards. For example:

Unless she given details guidance on these issues, that your selection which standards you follow. The essential thing is to continuously follow one traditional for each issue. Because that example, don’t use a mixture of American and also British spellings in your paper.

Additionally, you will more than likely be listed with certain guidelines for concerns related to layout (how your message is gift on the page) and also citations (how you identify your sources). Always follow these instructions carefully.

Frequently request questions around the composing process


Revising, proofreading, and editing are different stages the the writing process.

Revising is make structural and also logical transforms to her text—reformulating arguments and reordering information.Editing describes making much more local changes to things choose sentence structure and phrasing to make sure your meaning is conveyed plainly and concisely.Proofreading involves looking in ~ the message closely, heat by line, to spot any kind of typos and also issues through consistency and also correct them.

Whether you’re publishing a blog, submitting a research study paper, or also just writing critical email, there room a few techniques you have the right to use to make certain it’s error-free:

Take a break: collection your work aside for at least a few hours so that you deserve to look in ~ it v fresh eyes.Proofread a printout: Staring in ~ a display screen for too long can reason fatigue – sit down with a pen and record to check the last version.

If you want to be i was sure that vital text is error-free, it can be worth selecting a skilled proofreading service instead.


If you’ve gone over words limit collection for her assignment, shorten your sentences and also cut repetition and also redundancy throughout the modifying process. If you use a lot of of lengthy quotes, take into consideration shortening them to just the essentials.

See more: Difference Between Mike'S Hard And Mike'S Harder Lemonade, Attention Required!

If you must remove a the majority of words, friend may need to cut details passages. Psychic that every little thing in the text have to be over there to assistance your argument; watch for any type of information it is not crucial to your suggest and eliminate it.