aspect 90 of regular table is Thorium through atomic number 90, atomic load 232.0381. Thorium, price Th, has actually a Face focused Cubic structure and also Silver color. Thorium is a actinide element. Recognize everything around Thorium Facts, physical Properties, chemical Properties, electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.


Thorium is a chemical aspect with price Th and also atomic number 90. A radiation actinide metal, thorium is one of only two considerably radioactive elements that still take place naturally in large quantities as a primordial facet (the other being uranium). It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian Reverend and amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the sweden chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who called it after ~ Thor, the norseman god the thunder.

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Thorium Facts

Read an essential information and facts around element Thorium

surname Thorium
atom Number 90
atomic Symbol Th
Atomic weight 232.0381
step Solid
color Silver
Classification actinide
group in routine Table N/A
Group Name
duration in routine Table 7
Block in periodic Table f-block
Electronic Configuration 6d2 7s2
Melting suggest 1750 °C
Boiling allude 4820 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2>
CAS Number CAS7440-29-1

How to find Thorium on periodic Table

Periodic table is i ordered it by atomic number, variety of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atom number increases from left to right. Routine table start at top left ( atomic number 1) and also ends in ~ bottom appropriate (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 90 to find Thorium on periodic table.

Another method to read routine table and also locate an element is by using team number (column) and period number (row). To situate Thorium on periodic table look because that cross ar of team N/A and duration 7 in the modern periodic table.

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Table that Contents

Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Health and also Safety Parameters and also Guidelines
Compare Thorium with various other elements

Thorium History

The facet Thorium was found by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in year 1829 in Sweden . Thorium derived its surname from Thor, the Scandinavian god that thunder

Thorium Presence: abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the diversity of Thorium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by load (1ppb =10^-7 %)
diversity in universe 4×10-8%
diversity in sun 3×10-8%
variety in Meteorites 3.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth"s late 6e-06
variety in oceans 4×10-12%
abundance in people none

Crystal framework of Thorium

The solid state framework of Thorium is Face focused Cubic.

The decision structure have the right to be defined in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cell repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cell is stood for in terms of its lattice parameters, which room the lengths of the cabinet edges Lattice Constants (a, b and also c)

a b c
508.42 508.42 508.42 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms within the unit cell are defined by the set of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured native a referral lattice point.

The symmetry nature of the crystal are described by the concept of room groups. All feasible symmetric kinds of corpuscle in three-dimensional room are defined by the 230 an are groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral duplicates are considered distinct.

an are Group surname Fm_ 3m
room Group Number 225
Crystal framework Face focused Cubic

Thorium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Thorium atoms have actually 90 electrons and the electronic shell structure is <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2> v Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

atomic Number 90
Number of electrons (with no charge) 90
Number of Protons 90
Mass Number 232
Number the Neutrons 142
Shell structure (Electrons per power level) <2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2>
Electron configuration 6d2 7s2
Valence Electrons 6d2 7s2
Oxidation State 1;2;3;4
Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Shell structure of Thorium - electron per power level


Ground State electronic Configuration of Thorium - neutral Thorium atom

The soil state electronic configuration the Neutral Thorium atom is 6d2 7s2. The section of Thorium configuration that is identical to the noble gas the the coming before period, is abbreviated as . For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is crucial as the is the Valence electron 6d2 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that identify the chemical properties that the element.

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Unabbreviated digital configuration of neutral Thorium

Complete floor state digital configuration because that the Thorium atom, Unabbreviated digital configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 6d2 7s2

Atomic framework of Thorium

Thorium atomic radius is 180 pm, if it"s covalent radius is N/A.

atom Radius

180 afternoon (1.8 Å)

Atomic Volume 19.7917178437 cm3
Covalent Radius N/A
valve der Waals Radius N/A
neutron Cross section 7.4 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum the Thorium


Thorium chemical Properties: Thorium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Thorium is N/A

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.3
ElectronAffinity N/A

Ionization power of Thorium

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies the Thorium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 587
2 1110
3 1930
4 2780

Thorium physical Properties

Refer to listed below table because that Thorium physics Properties

thickness 11.724 g/cm3
Molar Volume 19.7917178437 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 79 GPa
Shear Modulus 31 GPa
mass Modulus 54 GPa
Poisson proportion 0.27

Hardness the Thorium - tests to measure of Hardness that Element

Mohs Hardness 3 MPa
Vickers Hardness 350 MPa
Brinell Hardness 400 MPa

Thorium electrical Properties

Thorium is Conductor that electricity. Describe table below for the electric properties the Thorium

electric Conductivity 6.7×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.5×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting point 1.38

Thorium Heat and Conduction Properties

thermal Conductivity 54 W/(m K)
Thermal expansion 0.000011 K-1

Thorium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Paramagnetic
Curie point N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility 7.2×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.7×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 8.4e-05

Optical properties of Thorium

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic nature of Thorium

speed of Sound 2490 m/s

Thorium heat Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer to table listed below for heat properties the Thorium

Melting allude 2023 K (1750 °C)
Boiling allude 5093 K (4820 °C)
an essential Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude 1.38

Enthalpies the Thorium

warm of combination 16 kJ/mol
warm of Vaporization 530 kJ/mol
warm of burning N/A

Thorium isotope - nuclear Properties of Thorium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally emerging Thorium has 1 stable isotope - 232Th.

Isotope Isotope mass % diversity T half Decay setting
232Th 100% secure N/A

Regulatory and Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-29-1
RTECS Number RTECSXO6400000
dot Hazard class 7
period Numbers 2975
EU Number EU231-139-7
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA perils N/A
NFPA wellness Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition point 130 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

perform of distinct identifiers to find the element in assorted chemical registry databases

Database i would number
CAS Number - chemical Abstracts organization (CAS) CAS7440-29-1
CID Number CID23960
Gmelin Number Gmelin16314
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSXO6400000

Compare Thorium through all Group N/A elements

Thorium vs Nobelium

Compare Thorium through all actinide elements

Thorium vs Actinium Thorium vs Protactinium Thorium vs Uranium Thorium vs Neptunium Thorium vs Plutonium Thorium vs Americium Thorium vs Curium Thorium vs Berkelium Thorium vs Californium Thorium vs Einsteinium Thorium vs Fermium Thorium vs Mendelevium Thorium vs Nobelium Thorium vs Lawrencium