6.4 Ionic bonding (ESABW)

The nature of the ionic link (ESABX)

When electrons are transferred native one atom to another it is referred to as ionic bonding.

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Electronegativity is a property of one atom, describing how strongly it attracts or holds onto electrons. Ionic bonding takes location when the distinction in electronegativity between the two atoms is more than ( ext1,7). This generally happens once a steel atom bonds through a non-metal atom. As soon as the difference in electronegativity is large, one atom will entice the mutual electron pair much much more strongly than the other, leading to electrons to be moved to the atom with higher electronegativity. Once ionic bonds form, a steel donates one or more electrons, because of having a short electronegativity, to kind a positive ion or cation. The non-metal atom has a high electronegativity, and also therefore conveniently gains electron to kind a an adverse ion or anion. The two ions space then attracted to each various other by electrostatic forces.

Ionic bond

An ionic link is a form of chemical bond wherein one or more electrons room transferred from one atom come another.

Example 1:

In the situation of ( extNaCl), the distinction in electronegativity between ( extNa) (( ext0,93)) and also ( extCl) (( ext3,16)) is ( ext2,1). Sodium has actually only one valence electron, when chlorine has actually seven. Because the electronegativity of chlorine is higher than the electronegativity that sodium, chlorine will lure the valence electron of the salt atom very strongly. This electron from salt is moved to chlorine. Salt loses one electron and forms one ( extNa^+) ion.


Chlorine benefit an electron and forms a ( extCl^-) ion.


Chlorine is a diatomic molecule and also so for it to take part in ionic bonding, that must an initial break up right into two atoms of chlorine. Sodium is component of a metallic lattice and the individual atom must first break away from the lattice.

The electron is as such transferred from salt to chlorine:


Figure 6.1: Ionic bonding in salt chloride

The well balanced equation because that the reaction is:

<2 extNa + extCl_2 ightarrow 2 extNaCl>

Example 2:

Another instance of ionic bonding take away place between magnesium (( extMg)) and also oxygen (( extO_2)) to type magnesium oxide (( extMgO)). Magnesium has actually two valence electrons and an electronegativity of ( ext1,31), if oxygen has six valence electrons and also an electronegativity the ( ext3,44). Due to the fact that oxygen has actually a greater electronegativity, it attracts the 2 valence electron from the magnesium atom and also these electrons room transferred native the magnesium atom to the oxygen atom. Magnesium loses 2 electrons to kind ( extMg^2+), and also oxygen gains two electrons to type ( extO^2-). The attractive force between the oppositely charged ions is what stop the compound together.

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The balanced equation for the reaction is:

<2 extMg + extO_2 ightarrow 2 extMgO>

Because oxygen is a diatomic molecule, 2 magnesium atoms will be essential to combine with one oxygen molecule (which has two oxygen atoms) to create two units of magnesium oxide (( extMgO)).

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The decision lattice framework of ionic link (ESABY)

Ionic substances space actually a combination of many ions external inspection together into a giant molecule. The plan of ions in a regular, geometric framework is referred to as a crystal lattice. So in fact ( extNaCl) does no contain one ( extNa) and also one ( extCl) ion, but rather a lot of these two ions i ordered it in a decision lattice wherein the ratio of ( extNa) to ( extCl) ion is 1:1. The framework of the crystal lattice is presented below.


Figure 6.2: The decision lattice setup in ( extNaCl)


Figure 6.3: A an are filling model of the sodium chloride lattice

Properties the ionic compound (ESABZ)

Ionic compounds have actually a number of properties:

Ions are arranged in a lattice structure

Ionic solids are crystalline in ~ room temperature

The ionic bond is a solid electrostatic attraction. This way that ionic link are frequently hard and have high melting and boiling points

Ionic compounds space brittle and also bonds are broken along planes when the compound is put under press (stressed)