Students will certainly learn around food chains, pyramids, and also food webs. Students will additionally learn how all of nature is connected and dependent on every other.

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A food chain shows how each living point gets that food. Some pets eat plants and some pets eat various other animals. Because that example, a basic food chain links the trees and also shrubs, the giraffes (that eat trees and shrubs), and also the lions (that eat the giraffes). Each connect in this chain is food because that the following link. Every food chains start with power from the sun. This energy is recorded by plants. Therefore the living part of a food chain always starts through plant life and also ends through an animal.


plants are called producers because they space able to use light power from the sun to create food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and also water. Pets cannot make their own food therefore they must eat plants and/or other animals. Lock are called consumers. There room three teams of consumers. Animals that eat just plants are dubbed herbivores (or main consumers). Pets that eat other pets are dubbed carnivores. Carnivores that eat herbivores are called second consumers, and carnivores that eat various other carnivores are called tertiary consumers. Animals and people who eat both animals and plants are dubbed omnivores. Then there are decomposers (bacteria, fungi, and even some worms), which feeding on disk matter. This decomposers speed up the decaying process that publication mineral salts back into the food chain for absorption through plants as nutrients.

In a food chain, energy is passed native one attach to another. When a herbivore eats, just a fraction of the power (that it it s okay from the plant food) becomes brand-new body mass; the remainder of the power is shed as garbage or supplied up by the herbivore to carry out that is life procedures (e.g., movement, digestion, reproduction). Therefore, once the herbivore is eaten by a carnivore, it passes just a small amount of complete energy (that it has actually received) to the carnivore. That the energy transferred indigenous the herbivore come the carnivore, some power will be “wasted” or “used up” through the carnivore. The carnivore then needs to eat countless herbivores to acquire enough energy to grow. Due to the fact that of the large amount of energy that is lost at each link, the lot of energy that is moved decreases each time. The more along the food chain friend go, the less food (and for this reason energy) continues to be available.

Food chain can likewise be stood for in different forms such as this pyramid.


The above energy pyramid shows plenty of trees and shrubs offering food and energy to giraffes. Keep in mind that as we go up, there room fewer giraffes 보다 trees and also shrubs and also even under lions 보다 giraffes. Together we go more along a food chain, there space fewer and also fewer consumers. In various other words, a large mass the living things at the base is forced to support a few at the top. Numerous herbivores are necessary to assistance a couple of carnivores. Most food chains have actually no an ext than 4 or five links. There cannot it is in too countless links in a single food chain due to the fact that the animals at the finish of the chain would not get sufficient food (and hence, energy) to continue to be alive.

Most animals are part of an ext than one food chain and eat much more than one kind of food in order to fulfill their food and also energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web. Food chains deserve to get complex because animals usually eat a range of food.

Food Chains

enough strips of colored record so the each student has four, one on i m sorry to draw the sun, one on i beg your pardon to attract a producer, one on i beg your pardon to draw a primary consumer and one on which to draw a second consumer.

Food Web

empty cards colored pencils Yarn
one organism that eats mainly meat Consumer: one organism, commonly an animal, the feeds on tree or other animals Food chain: a sequence of organisms i ordered it in together a way that each feeds top top the organism below it in the chain and serves together a resource of food for the organism above Food web: all the associated or attached food chains in ~ an ecological community Herbivore: an organism that eats mainly plants Predator: an animal that resides by killing and eating other animals Producer: an organism, commonly a plant, the converts sunlight energy into living material; generally the very first step ~ above the food chain or food net or first trophic level that a food pyramid

Cut sufficient strips of paper so that each college student will have four. Cut the yarn right into pieces that will certainly connect varieties that interact with each other.

Food Chains


top top the blackboard, create the following headings: Producers, primary Consumers, an additional Consumers, and also Tertiary Consumers. Ask college student to name some varieties under every heading. Then demonstrate how to produce a food chain, using several of the types listed.

when students understand, have them draw the sun, a producer, a main consumer, a an additional consumer, and also a tertiary customer on every of their 4 strips.

These must then it is in interlocked and also glued with each other to make a chain of types in i beg your pardon one eats the other. They can be hung indigenous the rafters to show the diversity the food chains that exist in nature.

Food Webs

Note: This task can be included for enlarge students.

Start similar to food chains, putting the 3 headings top top the board. Have actually students name species under each heading and tell something about each species’ lifestyle. Then have actually each student select a varieties from the board, write its surname on a card, and also draw a photo of it. (Check each one turn off the list together it’s chosen, come make sure it’s only used once). Climate the student should poke a hole close to the bottom the the card.

begin the food web by attaching a photo of the sunlight at one side of the wall. (If you placed it top top a wall, it can be saved). Have actually the student who drew producers carry their cards up. Cave these in a horizontal line next to the sun and also attach each one to the sun with a item of yarn to display the connection. Then have actually students who drew primary consumers carry their cards up. Cave these in a horizontal line above the producers.


One in ~ a time, talk about which producers they would certainly each consume. Connect yarn from each primary consumer to the producers it would certainly consume. (Remember that most pets eat more than one sort of food). The students will start to view how facility a food net is. Next add the an additional and tertiary consumers in rows above the producers. Again, discuss the connections between primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. Next include the scavengers: hyenas (can it is in predators as well as scavengers) and vultures. Finally, comment on decomposers—bacteria, fungi and worms the feed ~ above the decaying matter—and their role in the food web. Students need to now have actually a complete understanding the the complexity of the food web. At ideal is an example of a food web.

All living points need energy to remain alive. This energy originates from the sun. Plants make their food from energy from the sun. Pets get their energy from the food castle eat. Pets depend on other living points for food. Some pets eat plants while others eat various other animals. This pass of power from the sun to tree to pets to other pets is dubbed a food chain.

execute you understand why over there are more herbivores than carnivores? just how do human beings fit in the food chain? What could happen if an pet not indigenous to one area is carried into the local food chain? What might happen if you remove an animal from the food chain? How have the right to sun and rain influence the food chain? Drought? Why is a food net a an ext accurate depiction of nature 보다 a food chain or pyramid?

1. Internet of Life


college student will understand the concept of a food chain and demonstrate a grassland’s food chain.


pictures of animals, river, tree, grass, sun A round of yarn/spool of line


review The good Kapok Tree, through Lynne Cherry. Ask college student to name all the different animals that room dependent on the one tree.

offer each participant a picture.

an initial demonstrate a food chain, a straightforward interdependence, by linking the student with the sun card (the source of all energy) come the student v the grass card to the student v the zebra map to the student with the lion card.

present the results of male on the basic food chain. Guy can:

reduced trees (no trees, nothing because that grazers come eat, grazers will certainly die, lions and also other predators will have actually nothing come eat. They will begin to eat our livestock.) hunt in overfill (If we kill the lions, there will be too many zebras and they will certainly need an ext grass. They will eat the grass from our pasturelands.)

Balance is key! explain that the interactions in a grasslands mechanism are more facility than this. Because that example, the sun offers for much more than just grass, and lions don’t only eat zebras.

have the participants now stand in a circle, the end of order (i.e. Not all of the producer together, then the major consumers, climate the second consumers, etc.)

offer the round of string come the person with the sun. Climate ask that human to pass the yarn come the person with a card of one organism that the sun supports. If the sun supports much more than one biology in the circle, happen the string ago to the sun and from the sunlight to the other organism that it supports.

continue by asking the plants which biology they have the right to support and also so on.

keep going v the chain until you get to the optimal consumers. The string will certainly be a tangled net in the center of the circle. Food chains are complicated, and the balance they produce is essential.

Again talk about the effects of male on the internet by having actually students drop their string if man’s influence kills off their organism. Because that example, the influence of overhunting will reason the lions to drop your strings. What happens?

Possible concerns

carry out you know why there are much more herbivores 보다 carnivores? What if one animal from the food chain disappeared? What about one level the the food chain? Producers? Decomposers? Herbivores? how do humans fit in the food chain? What could happen if an animal not native to one area is carried into the regional food chain? What can happen if you eliminate an pet from the food chain? How deserve to sun and rain affect the food chain? Drought? Why is a food internet a much more accurate depiction of nature than a food chain or pyramid?

2. Food Chain Tag

This activity requires a big open area. In a course of 25 to 40 students, choose three to five to it is in predators and seven come ten to it is in plant-eaters. The remainder will be plants. This to represent a balanced system wherein plants are more plentiful than plant-eaters, plant-eaters more plentiful than predators, and predators are the least plentiful. The student can pick which plant-eaters and predators will be in their groups. (Example: Grevy’s zebras space plant-eaters and lions are predators).

Each team selects hand-signals the will identify them indigenous the other groups. (Example: the plants might want to organize their hands the end to their sides to represent leaves, the plant-eaters (oryx) may hold their hand on the heads to stand for horns, and also the predators (lions) may hold their hand up prefer paws with the claws showing). The predators try to tags the plant-eaters who shot to tags the plants. Due to the fact that predators decompose once they die and become fertilizer, the plants try to tag the predators. As soon as you are tagged, you revolve into everything tagged you.

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after ~ a duration of time, stop the video game to see how countless plants, plant-eaters, and also predators space left. Play must resume yet should be quit a few times prior to the finish to identify what has happened and why. After play a couple of rounds the the game, pick one the the plants to re-enter the game as a human. The rules because that the person are different: the human have the right to tag anyone, but no one have the right to tag the human. Every time the person tags someone, that player becomes one more human. See just how long that takes prior to all players have actually become adjusted into humans.

discuss the changes and also relationships that the game illustrates. Some questions for discussion could include:

What wake up to the plants and also plant-eaters if plenty of of the predators have been caught? What wake up to the tree if plenty of of them have been caught? What wake up when humans use too much of the food chain? How deserve to we keep that native happening?