Milk intake and risk the mortality and also fractures in women and also men: cohort studies
“Objective: To research whether high milk consumption is connected with mortality and also fractures in women and also men.
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Design: Cohort studies.
Setting: 3 counties in central Sweden.
Participants: Two big Swedish cohorts, one through 61 433 females (39-74 year at baseline 1987-90) and one through 45 339 guys (45-79 years at baseline 1997), to be administered food frequency questionnaires. The ladies responded come a 2nd food frequency questionnaire in 1997.
Main outcome measure: Multivariable survival models were used to identify the association between milk consumption and time come mortality or fracture.
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Results: throughout a average follow-up of 20.1 years, 15 541 females died and 17 252 had a fracture, of who 4259 had a i know good fracture. In the masculine cohort with a average follow-up that 11.2 years, 10 112 men died and also 5066 had a fracture, v 1166 hip fracture cases. In ladies the changed mortality hazard ratio for 3 or more glasses of milk a day contrasted with less than one glass a day to be 1.93 (95% trust interval 1.80 come 2.06). For every glass of milk, the changed hazard proportion of all reason mortality to be 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and also 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. Because that every glass of milk in ladies no reduction to be observed in fracture hazard with greater milk usage for any kind of fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or because that hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 come 1.13). The corresponding readjusted hazard ratios in guys were 1.01 (0.99 come 1.03) and also 1.03 (0.99 come 1.07). In subsamples of two added cohorts, one in males and also one in females, a optimistic association to be seen between milk intake and also both to pee 8-iso-PGF2α (a biomarker the oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker).
Conclusions: High milk intake was linked with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with greater fracture incidence in women. Provided the observational research designs v the inherent possibility of residual confounding and also reverse causation phenomena, a mindful interpretation of the results is recommended.”